Ex works means the sellers only responsibility is to make the goods available at the sellers premises, i.e., the works or factory. The seller is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears the full costs and risk involved in bringing the goods from there to the desired destination. Ex works represents the minimum obligation of the seller.
This term has been designed to meet the requirements of multimodal transport, such as container or roll-on, roll-off traffic by trailers and ferries. It is based on the same name principle as F.O.B. (free on board), except the seller fulfills its obligations when the goods are delivered to the custody of the carrier at the named point. If no precise point can be named at the time of the contract of sale, the parties should refer to the place where the carrier should take the goods into its charge. The risk of loss or damage to the goods is transferred from seller to buyer at that time and not at the ships rail. The term carrier means any person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage by road, rail, air, sea, or a combination of modes has been made. When a seller has been furnished a bill of lading, way bill or carriers receipt, the seller duly fulfills its obligation by presenting such a document issued by a carrier.FORorFOT
F.O.R. and F.O.T. mean free on rail or free on truck. Both refer to goods being carried by rail and should only be used when the goods are carried by rail. The risk of loss or damage is transferred when the goods are loaded onto the rail.FAS
F.A.S. or free alongside ship requires the seller to deliver the goods alongside the ship on the quay. From that point on, the buyer bears all costs and risks of loss and damage to the goods. Unlike F.O.B., F.A.S. requires the buyer to clear the goods for export and pay the cost of loading the goods.FOB
Under F.O.B. or free on board, the goods are placed on board the ship by the seller at a port of shipment named in the sales agreement. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred to the buyer when the goods pass the ships rail (i.e., off the dock and placed on the ship). The seller pays the cost of loading the goods.FOB Airport
This term is very similar to the ordinary F.O.B. term. The seller fulfills its obligation by delivering the goods to the air carrier at the airport of departure. The risk of loss is transferred from the seller to the buyer at such time.C & F
C. & F. or cost and freight (also abbreviatedCFR) requires the seller to pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named destination, but the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any cost increases, are transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ships rail in the port of shipment. Insurance is the buyers responsibility.CIF
C.I.F.– meaning cost, insurance, and freight–is C. & F. with the additional requirement that the seller procure transport insurance against the risk of loss or damage to goods. The seller must contract with the insurer and pay the insurance premium. Insurance is generally more important in international shipping than domestic shipping, because U.S. laws generally hold a common carrier to be liable for lost or damaged goods.or Freight/Carriage Paid To
This term means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss or damage to the goods and any cost increases transfers from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered to the custody of the first carrier, and not at the ships rail. Accordingly, freight/carriage paid to can be used for all modes of transportation, including container or roll-on roll-off traffic by trailers and ferries. When the seller is required to furnish a bill of lading, way bill, or carrier receipt, the seller duly fulfills its obligation by presenting such a document issued by the person contracted with for carriage to the main destination.or Freight/Carriage and Insurance Paid To
This term is the same as freight/carriage paid to but with the additional requirement that the seller has to procure transport insurance against the risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts with the insurer and pays the insurance premium.
Ex ship means the seller shall make the goods available to the buyer on board the ship at the destination named in the sales contract. The seller bears the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods there. The cost of unloading the goods and any customs duties must be paid by the buyer.Ex Quay
Ex quay means the seller has agreed to make the goods available to the buyer on the quay or the wharf at the destination named in the sales contract. The seller bears the full cost and risks in delivering the goods to that point including unloading. There are two variations of ex quay contracts: ex quay duty paid and ex quay duty on buyers account. In the first, the duty is paid by the seller. In the second, the duty also is paid by the seller, but the buyer must reimburse the seller.or Delivered at Frontier
Delivered at frontier means that the sellers obligations are fulfilled when the goods have arrived at the frontier but before the customs border of the country named in the sales contract. The term is primarily used when goods are carried by rail or truck. The seller bears the full cost and risk in delivering the goods up to this point, but the buyer must arrange and pay for the goods to clear customs.or Delivery/Duty Paid
Delivery/duty paid represents the sellers maximum obligation. The term DDP. is generally followed by words indicating the buyers premises. It notes that the seller bears all risks and all costs until the goods are delivered. This term can be used irrespective of the mode of transport. If the parties wish to make clear that the seller is not responsible for certain costs, additional word should be added (for example, delivered duty paid exclusive of VAT and/or taxes).
Under these terms, the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been available to the buyer uncleared for import at the point or place of the named destination. The seller bears all costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the point or place of named destination. There is no obligation for import clearance.
For a more complete discussion of the various Incoterms and their uses, the ICC Publishing Corporation, Inc., 156 Fifth Avenue, Suite 820, New York, N.Y., publishesIncoterms(No. 350), which discusses the actual ICC rules for the use of these terms, andThe Guide to Incoterms(No. 354), which provides illustrations and diagrams clearly setting forth the responsibilities of the buyer and the seller under each of the Incoterms.